Cáncer gástrico: historia de la enfermedad y factores de riesgo

Gastric cancer: natural history and risk factors

Contenido principal del artículo

Tania Liseth Pérez Cala
Alejandra Cardona Estepa
Alonso Martínez

Resumen

Las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, incluido el cáncer, están sobrepasando a las enfermedades infecciosas como la principal amenaza de salud en países como Colombia. La economía colombiana está creciendo rápidamente, conduciendo al aumento en la calidad de vida. Este crecimiento se acompaña de cambios como: aumento del tabaquismo, estilos de vida sedentarios, consumo de alcohol, hábitos alimentarios no saludables, mayor exposición a contaminantes ambientales cancerígenos y envejecimiento de la población, lo que explica el aumento de los casos de cáncer relacionados con factores de riesgo prevenibles. Esto diverge de lo encontrado en países desarrollados, en donde la mortalidad específicamente para el cáncer gástrico muestra tendencia al descenso, ya sea como resultado de su detección temprana, por intervenciones preventivas, o por acceso a terapias efectivas. Por esto es importante desarrollar estudios que ayuden a determinar y caracterizar todas las variantes implicadas en la aparición y desarrollo de esta enfermedad en el país. El cáncer gástrico es un problema de salud pública en Colombia, presentando la mortalidad más alta por cáncer. Esta enfermedad es multifactorial y de larga evolución, se caracteriza por no presentar síntomas o signos específicos. Son necesarias las investigaciones orientadas a disminuir la carga de este cáncer, mediante la reducción del riesgo y por medio de la identificación de los posibles factores involucrados. Considerando la necesidad de recopilar información que permita identificar los factores involucrados en el desarrollo del cáncer gástrico en la región, se realizó esta revisión que busca recopilar la literatura publicada sobre factores de riesgo.

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Biografía del autor/a (VER)

Tania Liseth Pérez Cala, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia

Bacterióloga, Magíster en Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas. Grupo Bacterias & Cáncer, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Alejandra Cardona Estepa, Universidad de Antioquia

Estudiante de Medicina Universidad de Antioquia. Grupo Bacterias & Cáncer, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Alonso Martínez, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia

Biólogo, Magister en Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, Doctorado. Grupo Bacterias & Cáncer, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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