Síndrome mielodisplásico: aspectos básicos y abordaje diagnóstico

Myelodysplastic syndromes: basics and diagnostic assessment

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Juan Camilo Cataño Pulgarin
Oscar Andres Franco
Yaneth Rocio Orduz

Resumen

El Síndrome Mielodisplásico (SMD) es un grupo de neoplasias hematológicas cuyo diagnóstico se basa en la presencia de citopenia inexplicada, displasia de alguna de las líneas mieloides y anormalidades citogenéticas típicas. Los estudios moleculares han permitido avanzar en el estudio de la fisiopatología y se han incorporado también al abordaje diagnóstico, permitiendo la clasificación en subtipos específicos, así como la predicción de respuesta a terapias específicas y el pronóstico. A pesar de esto, el diagnóstico aún recae en una adecuada historia clínica, en el análisis morfológico, en la exclusión de otras entidades que cursan con displasia y en los estudios de citogenética. La citometría de flujo no hace parte de los criterios diagnósticos, pero puede ser de utilidad en casos dudosos. El pronóstico es variable en función del subtipo pero, en general, es pobre y además del IPSS-R, se han identificado otras variables que inciden en el pronóstico, sobre todo en los casos asociados a terapia.

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